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OE 505: Introduction to Maritime Systems

Chicago 16: How to Cite A Source -- Author-Date

Type of reference

Exact Wording


Enclose in quotes, with the author, year, and page number in parentheses

Ideas or Mentions


Attribute the original author with the date and page number after the author's name; no quotation marks

Long Quotes (1+ paragraph)


Indent full quotation with (Author year, page number) after period, no quotation marks (unless part of quote)


Include everything you cited in the list of References


“My cat’s fur is brown” (Smith 1999, 23).

Smith (1999, 23) observed that the fur on his cat was brown.

My cat's fur is brown, and she is lovely, but as with other felines, cats can scratch if antagonized, so I caution you against doing so. (Smith 1999, 23)

Smith, Max. 1999. “My Cat.” Journal of Feline Felicities 43 (2): 19-34.