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Visual Arts & Music Resources

A research guide for Visual Arts/Music & Technology students.

Citing Art Works

When using images in a paper, you must include a full citation of the image in your list of works cited.

Aerial view of Hoboken Digital ID: 1630052. New York Public Library(this image is in the public domain!)

MLA (from Purdue OWL)

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc. Aerial View of Hoboken. N.d., New York Public Library Digital Gallery,

APA (from Landmark College)

Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website) - See more at:

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc (Photographer). (N.d.). Aerial view of Hoboken [Photograph]. Retrieved January 24, 2014, from:

Chicago/Turabian (from Colgate University) - requires institution, website, and item description.

Author, Title of work. Year of creation {if available}. Medium, description. Source, Location. From: Website, URL (access date Month Day, Year).

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc., Aerial view of Hoboken. Not dated. Photograph, b&w, 18.5 x 24 cm. New York Public Library, New York. From: New York Public Library Digital Gallery, (accessed January 24, 2014).

Citing Musical Works

Musical works are cited in different ways depending on their medium. Sound recordings are different from sheet music which is different from .mp3 files, so it's important to be specific when you cite a work you have used.

MLA (from Purdue OWL)

  • Sound recordings
    Beethoven, Ludwig van. The 9 Symphonies. Performance by NBC Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Arturo Toscanini, RCA, 2003.
APA (APA Style Blog)
  • Recorded music
    Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording)

    Hood, O. (1940). You are my sunshine [Recorded by P. Seeger]. On American favorite ballads vol. 4 [CD]. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian/Folkways. (1961)
  • Musical score (example from APA Style Blog)
    Composer, A. A. (Date). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

    Picker, T. (Composer), & McClatchy, J. D. (Librettist). (1995). Emmeline: An opera in two acts [Score and parts]. Mainz, Germany: Schott Helicon.
  • YouTube video
    Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    Chakraborty, A. (2013, July 26). You are my sunshine by Pete Seeger [Video file]. Retrieved from

Chicago/Turabian (from Florida International University; includes sound and video recordings, scores, and live performances)

Citing Reviews

When citing a review of a work (music recording, film, artwork, book, etc.), it's important to include the name of the work being reviewed as well as citation information about the review itself.

MLA (from Purdue OWL)

Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Review of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, page.

Dickar, Maryann. "Coming of Age in New Jersey." Review of Teenage New Jersey, 1941-1975, by Kathryn Grover. American Quarterly, Mar. 2000, pp. 127-44.

APA (from APA Style Blog)

Lastname, F. (Year, Month Day). Title of review. [Review of the {medium} Title of work, by A. Author]. Title of Periodical Volume(Number), page(s). doi: ___ (if applicable).

Dickar, M. (2000, March). Coming of age in New Jersey. [Review of the book Teenage New Jersey, 1941-1975, by K. Grover]. American Quarterly 52(1), 127-144.


Lastname, First. “Title of Review.” Review of Work Title, by Work Author. Source, Month Day, Year, Section (if applicable). URL.

Dickar, Maryann. "Coming of Age in New Jersey." Review of Teenage New Jersey, 1941-1975, by Kathryn Grover. American Quarterly, March 2000.