Patents are the form of intellectual property registration specifically meant for inventions, including plants and designs, to prevent others from making, using, or selling the invention in the U.S. American patents are filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). There are three types of patents:
Utility - the most common, meant for "process, machine, article of manufacture, compositions of matter, or any new useful improvement thereof" (USPTO Patent FAQ). Duration of a patent for applications marked June 8, 1995 and after, begins on the date of the grant and ends 20 years from date of application, as long as maintenance fees have been paid.
Design - to register "a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture" (USPTO Patent FAQ). Duration is 14 years from the date the patent was granted, no maintenance fees required. Design patent numbers start with a D.
Plant - to register the creation of new "asexually reproduced plant varieties" (USPTO Patent FAQ). Duration of a patent for applications marked June 8, 1995 and after, begins on the date of the grant and ends 20 years from date of application. No maintenance fees required. Plant patent numbers start with a P.
To file a patent with the USPTO, visit the USPTO's Patents site.
A useful tutorial on how to read a patent: "Patents and Patentability" (created by the UMN Libraries).
Patent: Wildman, J.R. (1981, December 29). U.S. Patent No. D262,473. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Patent applications are filed to the government body responsible for intellectual property in each country. The main bodies include the U.S. Patent and Trademark Organization (USPTO), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the European Patent Office (EPO), the Canadian Intellectual Property Organization (CIPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), and others. To find patents and patent applications, a good first step is the government body responsible, but these databases can be tricky to use, so there are also a number of free services that aim to make patent searching a bit easier, as well as Lexis-Nexis and Scopus, two of the Library's subscription databases.
Patent Application Alerts - You can now sign up to get an alert every time a patent application on a topic of relevance to you is published, a new service from the USPTO.
International patent office search engines:
Free domestic or international patent search engines:
Databases with patent search (note: off-campus users will be asked to log in with their myStevens username and password):
The federal government designates several libraries around the country as Depository Libraries, meaning they receive copies of all or most government publications (such as patents) to make these documents available to everyone. We live near two of them - the Newark Public Library and the New York Public Library. Both of these libraries are open to the public, meaning you can use certain resources without a library card. We recommend checking their web sites for hours of availability and directions.
IEEE (from IEEE Editorial Style Manual):
J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.
J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.
Note: Use “issued date” if several dates are given.
APA (from APA Style Blog)
Surname, A. B. (year). Patent Identifier No. xxx. Location: Source Name.
Bell, A. G. (1876). U.S. Patent No. 174,465. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
ACS (from The ACS Style Guide, Ch. 14: References)
Patent Owner 1; Patent Owner 2; etc. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date.
Sheem, S. K. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor. U.S. Patent 6,738,537, May 18, 2004.
To order a copy of a patent that you have not found with these resources, fill out the form for an Article (click the box above) and list all pertinent information. If you have questions, contact the Interlibrary Loan Department.