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How to Cite Your Sources

APA 6: How to Cite a Source

Type of reference

Exact Wording (up to 40 words)


Enclose in quotes, with the author, year, and page number in parentheses

Ideas and Organization


Paraphrase with attribution to original author with year after author's name, page number after text, no quotation marks

Long Quotes (40+ words)


Indent full quotation with attribution at end, no quotation marks (unless part of quote)


Include everything you quoted or were influenced by in the list of works cited
(note: for requirements of references page, see box below)


“My cat’s fur is brown” (Smith, 1999, p. 23).

Smith (1999) observed that the fur on his cat was brown (23).

My cat… scratched me. (Smith, 1999, p. 23)

Smith, M. (1999). My cat. Journal of Feline Felicities 43(2), 19-34.

APA 6: Formatting a Citation

Author(s). (year). Title. Source, version(number), page numbers. Publisher location: Publisher. DOI. Retrieved from [URL].

Author - Lastname, F. Additional authors: Lastname, F., & Lastname, F. Lastname, F., Lastname, F., & Lastname, F.
More than 7 authors: after the seventh author, put an ellipsis and the last author's name (Lastname, F.).



Smith, M. (1999). My cat. Journal of Feline Felicities 43(2), 19-34.


APA: Purdue Owl Guide

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) of Purdue University has become well known for their MLA and APA style guides. While the many intricacies of both formats can only be found in the published guides, the OWL versions can answer many of the more common questions about citing various types of sources.

APA 6: Reviews

When citing a review of a work (music recording, film, artwork, book, etc.), it's important to include the name of the work being reviewed as well as citation information about the review itself.

Lastname, F. (Year, Month Day). Title of review. [Review of the {medium} Title of work, by A. Author]. Title of Periodical Volume(Number), page(s). doi: ___ (if applicable).

Dickar, M. (2000, March). Coming of age in New Jersey. [Review of the book Teenage New Jersey, 1941-1975, by K. Grover]. American Quarterly 52(1), 127-144.

(source: APA Style Blog)

APA 6: Musical Works

Musical works are cited in different ways depending on their medium. Sound recordings are different from sheet music which is different from .mp3 files, so it's important to be specific when you cite a work you have used.

  • Recorded music
    Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording)

    Hood, O. (1940). You are my sunshine [Recorded by P. Seeger]. On American favorite ballads vol. 4 [CD]. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian/Folkways. (1961)
  • Musical score (example from APA Style Blog)
    Composer, A. A. (Date). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

    Picker, T. (Composer), & McClatchy, J. D. (Librettist). (1995). Emmeline: An opera in two acts [Score and parts]. Mainz, Germany: Schott Helicon.
  • YouTube video
    Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    Chakraborty, A. (2013, July 26). You are my sunshine by Pete Seeger [Video file]. Retrieved from

APA 6: Art Works

When using images in a paper, you must include a full citation of the image in your list of works cited.

Aerial view of Hoboken Digital ID: 1630052. New York Public Library(this image is in the public domain!)


Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website) - See more at:
Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website) - See more at:
Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website) - See more at:

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc (Photographer). (N.d.). Aerial view of Hoboken [Photograph]. Retrieved January 24, 2014, from:

(source: Landmark College)

APA 6: Government Documents

APA 6: Translated Works

Piaget, J. (1966). La psychologie de l’enfant [The psychology of the child]. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.
(Example taken from the APA Style Blog: Citing Translated Sources in APA Style, 2012)

APA 6: Journal Articles

Single author:

Strauf, S. (2011). Photonic crystals: Lasing woodpiles. Nature Photonics, 5(2), 72-74.


Multiple authors:

Ramirez-Marquez, J., & Rocco, C. M. (2010). Evolutionary optimization technique for multi-state two-terminal reliability allocation in multi-objective problems. IIE Transactions, 42(8), 539-552.

APA 6: Books & Book Chapters

Book with a single author:

Luftman, J. N. (2011). Managing IT human resources: Considerations for organizations and personnel. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.


Book with multiple authors:

Bullen, C. V., LeFave, R., Selig, G. J., & Chittenden, J. (2010). Implementing strategic sourcing: A manager's guide to world class best practices. Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing.


Chapter in a book:

Bruno, M.S. & Hires, R.I. (2006). Oceanography. In J.R. Pfafflin & E.N. Ziegler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of environmental science and engineering (pp. 790-801). New York: Taylor and Francis.



Burhans, D. E. (2008). Crunch!: A history of the great American potato chip. Retrieved from

APA 6: Conference Papers

Gorod, A., Fridman, A., & Sauser, B. (2010). A quantitative approach to analysis of a system of systems operational boundaries. Paper presented at the 2010 International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops, ICUMT 2010, 655-661.

APA 6: Websites & Social Media

Page from a Website:

Cape Cod Chips. (n.d.) History. Retrieved from



G., H. [hindyg]. (2016, September 5). Have you tried the new Lays tikka masala flavor? So good. And they're even #kosher! #snacks #potatochips #chips... [Tweet]. Retrieved from