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The Research Process

How to cite sources

Learn about citations

A citation includes basic, important information about a source.  This information may include: title of book, title of article, authors, date of publication, page numbers, volume, issue, publisher, etc. 


This information helps you find the source again later.  It also helps your professor understand where you found supporting information that you've included in your paper.  It's very important to cite your sources correctly so that you give credit to the author and help others to locate the source.

Look at a source's bibliography to find more sources.  The bibliography can lead you to further reading that's particularly relevant to your topic.


Book or journal article?

Journal article citations include volume, issue, & page numbers:
Ramirez-Marquez, J., & Rocco, C. M. (2010). Evolutionary optimization technique for multi-state two-terminal reliability allocation in multi-objective problems. IIE Transactions, 42(8), 539-552.

Book citations include a publisher name & place of publication:
GabarroĢ, Steven A. Web Application Design and Implementation: Apache 2, Php5, Mysql, Javascript, and Linux/unix. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience, 2007.

Sample citations using APA and MLA style format

Journal articles

Sample citation for a journal article with a single author, using APA format:
Strauf, S. (2011). Photonic crystals: Lasing woodpiles. Nature Photonics, 5(2), 72-74.

Sample citation for a journal article with multiple authors, using APA format:
Ramirez-Marquez, J., & Rocco, C. M. (2010). Evolutionary optimization technique for multi-state two-terminal reliability allocation in multi-objective problems. IIE Transactions, 42(8), 539-552.

Sample citation for a journal article with a single author, using MLA format:
Russell, A. L. "Telecommunications Standards in the Second and Third Industrial Revolutions." Journal of the Communications Network 5.1 (2006): 100-6.

Sample citation for a journal article with multiple authors, using MLA format:
Lechler, T. G., and D. Dvir. "An Alternative Taxonomy of Project Management Structures: Linking Project Management Structures and Project Success." IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 57.2 (2010): 198-210.


Books and book chapters

Sample citation for a book with a single author, using APA format:
Luftman, J. N. (2011). Managing IT human resources: Considerations for organizations and personnel. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.

Sample citation for a book with a single author, using MLA format:
GabarroĢ, Steven A. Web Application Design and Implementation: Apache 2, Php5, Mysql, Javascript, and Linux/unix. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience, 2007.

Sample citation for a book with multiple authors, using APA format:
Bullen, C. V., LeFave, R., Selig, G. J., & Chittenden, J. (2010). Implementing strategic sourcing: A manager's guide to world class best practices. Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing.

Sample citation for a book with multiple authors, using MLA format:
Jakobsson, Markus, and Zulfikar Ramzan. Crimeware: Understanding New Attacks and Defenses. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2008. Print.

Sample citation for a chapter in a book, using APA format:
Bruno, M.S. & Hires, R.I. (2006). Oceanography, In J.R. Pfafflin & E.N. Ziegler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering (790-801). New York: Taylor and Francis.

Sample citation for a chapter in a book, using MLA format:
Sinnreich-Levi, Deborah M. "Teaching The Song of Roland in Modern English Translation." Approaches to Teaching The Song of Roland. Ed. William W. Kibler & Leslie Zarker Morgan.  New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2006. Print.

 

Conference papers

Sample citation for a conference paper, using APA format:
Gorod, A., Fridman, A., & Sauser, B. (2010). A quantitative approach to analysis of a system of systems operational boundaries. Paper presented at the 2010 International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops, ICUMT 2010, 655-661.

Sample citation for a conference paper, using MLA format:
Micciancio, D., and A. Nicolosi. "Efficient Bounded Distance Decoders for Barnes-Wall Lattices." IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings.